May 2016 Update in bold below!
This has been a popular topic lately and I previously made a post about it here:
The penalty for not filling out the mandatory Canadian census form is:
“a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars” or “imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months” or both.
This comes directly from the Canadian Statistics Act which you can read here. Section 31 (b) is where you want to look.
The new link to the Law is here! Still Section 31. Full text of the section is:
(a) refuses or neglects to answer, or wilfully answers falsely, any question requisite for obtaining any information sought in respect of the objects of this Act or pertinent thereto that has been asked of him by any person employed or deemed to be employed under this Act, or
(b) refuses or neglects to furnish any information or to fill in to the best of his knowledge and belief any schedule or form that the person has been required to fill in, and to return the same when and as required of him pursuant to this Act, or knowingly gives false or misleading information or practises any other deception thereunder
is, for every refusal or neglect, or false answer or deception, guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months or to both.